Chinese companies have RMB 20 Trillion of receivables

全国企业应收账款规模达20万亿 商务部预警风险

商务部称将适时扩大商业保理试点范围

2013-03-06   作者:记者 孙韶华 实习生 周文其/北京报道  来源:经济参考报

5日,由中国服务贸易协会和商务部研究院合办的“首届中国商业保理行业峰会”发布了一份名为《中国商业保理行业研究报告2012》的报告。报告指出,应收账款规模持续上升风险加大,据估计全国企业应收账款规模在20万亿元以上。此外,商务部研究院对非金融类上市公司的财务状况监测结果表明,2012年我国上市公司财务风险已经为近十年来最大。
上述报告称,2012年受世界经济复苏明显放缓和国内经济下行压力加大的影响,国际国内市场需求总体不足,我国各行业产能过剩问题较为突出,在此背景下,企业应收账款规模持续上升,回收周期不断延长,应收账款拖欠和坏账风险明显加大,企业周转资金紧张状况进一步加剧。据业内人士估计,全国企业的应收账款规模在20万亿以上。
以国内工业企业为例,国家统计局数据显示,截至2012年12月,全国规模以上(主营业务收入2000万元及以上)工业企业应收账款总额82189.9亿元,较去年同期增长了17.63%,比流动资产总额增速快了5.6个百分点。应收账款总额占全国规模以上工业流动资产总额的比重为22.68%,较去年同期增加了1.08%。全国规模以上工业企业应收账款周转率12.05次,比去年同期降低0.02次。
“应收账款规模正呈现出规模大、风险高的特点。另据我们对上市公司财务状况的监测,去年上市公司财务安全状况是近十年来最大的。”商务部研究院信用部主任韩家平在论坛上表示,据统计,截至2012年10月31日,2471家上市公司应收账款达到2.22万亿元,同比上升近18%。如剔除金融类上市公司及中石化、中石油的数据,其他上市公司2012年前三季度的应收账款同比上升超过23%。其中,与宏观经济休戚相关的基建制造、煤炭钢铁、化工有色等大行业的应收账款同比增长数据均高于平均水平,达到30%—40%,整体表现为外部欠款严重;煤炭开采业更甚,2012年前三季度煤炭开采业公司的应收账款同比增长达到79.65%;此外,服装家纺类上市公司的应收账款同比增长接近40%。
据《经济参考报》记者了解,去年,我国企业应收账款规模持续上升、“三角债”抬头风险加大的问题已经引起政府高层重视,工信部、银监会、商务部等多个部委曾展开一轮调研摸底。
当前,应收账款规模依然居高不下,业内人士分析,一方面与国内外宏观经济形势和行业发展情况相关,企业资金周转出现困难。另一方面,我国信用体系建设缺失也推高了坏账率进而加剧了风险。据商务部的统计,我国企业每年因信用缺失导致的直接和间接经济损失高达6000亿元。
业内分析认为,信用服务业尤其是保理业的发展可以成为国内信用服务体系建设的一个突破口。据了解,商务部已经于2012年6月下发通知,同意在天津滨海新区、上海浦东新区开展商业保理试点,探索商业保理发展途径。截至2013年1月底,我国已注册的保理公司达到85家,其中内资64家,外资21家。
商务部市场秩序司巡视员温再兴说,当前市场信用环境不好,应收账款拖欠和三角债的问题是普遍的。商业保理业的发展对于解决我国三角债问题、中小企业融资难问题会有很大帮助。
温再兴透露,下一步商务部将稳步推进商业保理试点工作,“拟成立的公司要按照标准和条件严格把关,内外资标准是统一的。对于已经成立的公司要重新登记。对于想要参加试点的城市在严格条件的基础上,适当扩大试点的范围。”“同时商务部正在开发商务保理直报统计系统,商务保理企业都要纳入其中,我们要求所有的企业都不能游离于我们的监管之外。”

About bambooinnovator
Kee Koon Boon (“KB”) is the co-founder and director of HERO Investment Management which provides specialized fund management and investment advisory services to the ARCHEA Asia HERO Innovators Fund (www.heroinnovator.com), the only Asian SMID-cap tech-focused fund in the industry. KB is an internationally featured investor rooted in the principles of value investing for over a decade as a fund manager and analyst in the Asian capital markets who started his career at a boutique hedge fund in Singapore where he was with the firm since 2002 and was also part of the core investment committee in significantly outperforming the index in the 10-year-plus-old flagship Asian fund. He was also the portfolio manager for Asia-Pacific equities at Korea’s largest mutual fund company. Prior to setting up the H.E.R.O. Innovators Fund, KB was the Chief Investment Officer & CEO of a Singapore Registered Fund Management Company (RFMC) where he is responsible for listed Asian equity investments. KB had taught accounting at the Singapore Management University (SMU) as a faculty member and also pioneered the 15-week course on Accounting Fraud in Asia as an official module at SMU. KB remains grateful and honored to be invited by Singapore’s financial regulator Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) to present to their top management team about implementing a world’s first fact-based forward-looking fraud detection framework to bring about benefits for the capital markets in Singapore and for the public and investment community. KB also served the community in sharing his insights in writing articles about value investing and corporate governance in the media that include Business Times, Straits Times, Jakarta Post, Manual of Ideas, Investopedia, TedXWallStreet. He had also presented in top investment, banking and finance conferences in America, Italy, Sydney, Cape Town, HK, China. He has trained CEOs, entrepreneurs, CFOs, management executives in business strategy & business model innovation in Singapore, HK and China.

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